This is one of Madrid's railroad-stations - the most famous one. Currently it consists of three parts, the original old station, you can see it in the foreground, the first extension in the background and the second extension behind the first one, not visible in the photograph.
The oldest part was inaugurated in 1851 with a train connection to the zone of Aranzuela in the south of Madrid. It was a terminus that had not had any connectivity to other railway-lines like the northern (to Valladolid) or north-eastern (to Burgos and Vitoria) railway-line.
In 1992 opened the first extension, started in 1985 with the competition won by architect Rafael Moneo. 1992 was the year of Sevilla's World Exposition, and Spain's national railway-company started the highspeed connection between Madrid and the andalusian town. The station concourse was transformed in a 4000 squaremeter botanic garden, a greenhouse with tropic palms and lots of flowers.
In 2009 and 2011 were opened the last extensiones, first the suburbian connection to the northern Chamartin-station, guided by tunnels, and later the southern extension by the same Moneo.